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This restrictive trend found its peak in the 1970s and 1980s, when military dictatorships gripped most countries in the South American region.Migration laws adopted during those two decades fell in line with the prevalent securitized immigration rhetoric, depicting the foreigner as a threat not worthy of extensive rights.Paraguay and Argentina have the largest shares of regional migrants in their non-national populations, with 90 percent and 80 percent respectively, and Brazil has the lowest with 30 percent.Policies on Free Movement of Regional Citizens since 2000 Since the beginning of the 21 century, South America has taken significant steps toward a legislative framework on migration that is heavily anchored on the respect of human rights, the principle of nondiscrimination, and the understanding that crossing a border should not necessarily constitute a loss of rights.Finally, where national governments in South America and elsewhere previously saw emigrants as potential traitors and took steps to disenfranchise and denaturalize them, policymakers now viewed migrants as valuable ambassadors and senders of remittances to whom dual citizenship and voting rights should be guaranteed.This shift in perception is clear in the numerous laws adopted since the 1990s allowing dual citizenship and external voting.This article examines the emerging South American model of free movement at regional and national levels, and discusses its implications for such projects more generally.

Third, various governments became willing to introduce social items to the agendas of both Mercosur and the Andean Community (CAN), another regional bloc, which had grown stagnant in their original purely economic aims to increase trade and establish internal markets.While South America as a whole was second only to the United States in receiving migrants during the 19 century led to increasingly restrictive migration policies in the region.These include reverberations in the region from discriminatory immigration policies introduced in the United States in the late 19 century, and fallout from the 1929 global economic crisis.In other words, already in the 19 century the Hispano-American regional citizen had emerged as a legal figure between the national and the foreigner.However, regional migration flows were scant, with most migrants coming from Europe, primarily to Argentina and Brazil.

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